The book introduces advanced theories for deformation, damage, and failure in materials. The overall continuum mechanical framework was marked out and added by creep and damage mechanics of materials at elevated temperatures. The time-dependent and time-independent models of cyclic plasticity for low cycle and thermomechanical fatigue life assessment were specified in a very special manner: instead of three-dimensional statements, only one-dimensional rheological models were discussed. Anisotropic plasticity during non-proportional loading and anisotropy of yield/failure criteria is more and more important in modern applications. It is showing how the limit states of materials can be estimated. In addition, the damage and failure of composite materials demonstrate the possibility to extend continuum mechanics to continuum damage mechanics of composite materials.