This volume highlights key moments and movements in this "competence turn" in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), and explores the different ways in which competences have been conceptualized and implemented. By marshaling a dialogue between chapters and sections, the book provides a coherent whole that will become a key source on ESD competences. The contributors develop a conceptual map against which to chart existing (and future) ESD competence frameworks, offer new critical case studies that explore the implementation of educator competences in ESD at different structural levels in different European contexts, explore the link between pedagogy and educator competence through hitherto unpublished case studies based on current practices across Europe, and consider the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ESD and educator competence. The book comprises 23 chapters divided into four sections, with an introduction and concluding chapter. Section One introduces concepts and models related to ESD competences, while the following two sections focus on implementation and pedagogy. In light of the foregoing material, the shorter Section Four is both reflective and forward looking. The primary audience for this book will be academics and students working in the fields of Education, Sustainability Science and related disciplines.