This book explores the emergence of an ius puniendi outside state criminal law and beyond international criminal law. The study connects with the reflections that have been made for some years in global law studies, showing how this trend also has a clear manifestation in the field of criminal law. The analysis begins by mapping out the different manifestations of this new global criminal regulation. This includes very diverse areas, ranging from judicial cooperation to the problems involved in the application of criminal sanctions in failed states, or investigations carried out on the internet. New sanctioning systems are also studied, such as the debarment regime of the World Bank or the sanctions in the hands of international sports federations. It is a question of discovering all criminal law – understood in a broad sense – that lies outside the confines of the state.