In the name of of Allah the Merciful

Hearing Science Fundamentals

Jeremy James Donai, Norman J. Lass, 9781635503296, 1635503299, 978-1635503296

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English | 2023 | PDF | Delivery Time: 1-8 Hours

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Preface
Acknowledgments
Contributors
Reviewers
Section I: Acoustics
1. Basic Acoustics
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Sound
Sinusoidal Motion
Spatial Concepts
Amplitude
Wavelength (?)
Temporal Concepts
Cycle
Period
Frequency
Phase
Velocity
Frequency/Period Relationship
Frequency/Wavelength Relationship
Sound Propagation and Interference
Complex Sounds
Periodicity Versus Aperiodicity
Resonance
Cavity (Acoustical) Resonance
Frequency Response Curve
Ear Canal Analogy
The Decibel
Computational Perspective
Hearing Threshold Level and Audiometric Zero (0 dB HL)
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
2 Review of Speech Acoustics
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Source-Filter Theory and Vocal Tract Anatomy
Acoustic Measures
Fundamental Frequency
Voice Onset Time
Root Mean Square Amplitude
Formants (Spectral Resonances)
Long-Term Average Spectrum (LTAS)
Speech Sound Classification
Consonant Classification
Vowel Classification
Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and Count-the-Dots Audiogram
SII
Count-the-Dots Audiogram
Ling 6 Sounds Test
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
3. Digital Signal Processing
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Amplitude Quantization and Sampling Frequency
Aliasing and Anti-Aliasing Filtering
Windowing
Frequency Versus Time Tradeoff (Frequency Resolution Versus Temporal Resolution)
Pre-Emphasis
Digital Hearing Aid Signal Processing
Compression
Directional Microphones and Digital Noise Reduction
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
Section II: Structure and Function
4. Anatomy and Physiology of the Conductive Auditory Mechanism
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Outer Ear
Auricle (Pinna)
External Auditory Meatus (Outer Ear Canal)
Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)
Middle Ear
Tympanic Cavity Proper (Tympanum)
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
Middle Ear Muscles
Function of the Conductive Mechanism
Non-Acoustic Function
Acoustic Function
Impedance
Impedance Mismatch
Auditory (Eustachian) Tube
Action of the Middle Ear Muscles
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
5. Anatomy and Physiology of the Sensory Auditory Mechanism
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Inner Ear
Function of the Sensory Mechanism
Mechanical Properties
Active Processes
Cochlear Electrophysiology
Resting Potential
Potentials Seen as Response to Stimulation
Single-Cell Electrical Activity
Phase Locking
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
6. Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Auditory Mechanism
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Afferent Central Auditory Pathway
Interhemispheric Connections
Efferent Central Auditory Pathway
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
Section III: Psychoacoustics
7. Normal Hearing
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Stimulus Characteristics
Stimulus Frequency
Stimulus Duration
Stimulus Intensity
Methods of Stimulus Presentation
Earphones
Speakers
Assessment of Auditory Sensitivity
Method of Limits
Method of Adjustment
Method of Constant Stimuli
Listener (Subject) Variables
Age Variation
What Is “Normal Hearing”?
Localization of Sound
Interaural Intensity (Level) Cues for Localization
Interaural Time (Phase) Cues for Localization
Hearing by Bone Conduction
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
8. Binaural Processing
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Advantages of Binaural Hearing
Listening in Noise
Binaural Squelch
Directional Hearing
Localization
Lateralization
Vertical Localization
Minimal Audible Angle (MAA)
Minimal Audible Movement Angle (MAMA)
Distance Perception
Precedence Effect
Disadvantages of Binaural Hearing
Physiology of Binaural Hearing
Afferent Pathways
Efferent Pathways
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
9. Masking
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Masker-Signal Relationship and Sound Level
Masking of Tones by Other Tones
Masking of Tones by Narrow Noise Bands
The Critical Band
Masking of Tones by Wide Noise Bands
Special Cases of Masking
Energetic and Informational Masking
Masking in Clinical Audiology
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
10. Temporal Processing
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Neural Physiology
Temporal Fine Structure and Temporal Envelope
Dip Listening
Modulation Rate and Modulation Depth
Temporal Processing Skills
Temporal Integration
Temporal Resolution
Temporal Patterning
Temporal Masking
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
11. Loudness and Pitch
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Loudness
Pitch
Residue Pitch and the Missing Fundamental
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
12. Differential Sensitivity
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
The Fechner-Weber Fraction
Difference Limen for Intensity
Difference Limen for Frequency
Temporal Discrimination
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
13. Signal Detection Theory
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Response Distributions
Response Types
Sensitivity and Specificity
Response Bias
Discriminability Index (d') and ROC Curves
Ceiling and Floor Effects
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
14. Auditory Perception and Hearing Impairment
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Outer Hair Cell (OHC) Damage
Auditory Recruitment
Inner Hair Cell (IHC) Damage
Cochlear Dead Regions
Auditory Nerve Damage
Effects on Frequency Selectivity
Auditory Excitation Patterns
Effects on Temporal Processing
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
Section IV: Pathologies of the Auditory Mechanisms
15. Pathologies of the Conductive Auditory Mechanism
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Pathologies of the Outer Ear
Auricle
Chondritis and Cauliflower Ear
External Auditory Canal
Impacted Cerumen
Pathologies of the Middle Ear
Eustachian Tube (Auditory Tube)
Otitis Media
Mastoiditis
Cholesteatoma
Pathologies of the Middle Ear Ossicles
Otosclerosis
Ossicular Discontinuity
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
16. Pathologies of the Sensory Auditory Mechanism
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
Inner Ear Pathologies
Cochlea
Auditory and Non-Auditory Effects of Noise
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
Socioacusis and Presbycusis
Meniere’s Disease
Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Ototoxicity
Auditory Nerve
Acoustic Neuroma (Vestibular Schwannoma)
Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
17. Pathologies of the Central Auditory Mechanism
Key Terms
Learning Objectives
(Central) Auditory Processing Definition
Signs and Symptoms
(C)APD Evaluation
Behavioral (Central) Auditory Skill Areas
Auditory Figure Ground
Low-Redundancy Speech
Dichotic Listening
Temporal Processing
Electrophysiological Assessment
Neural Response Overview
Management Strategies
Environmental Modifications
Compensatory Strategies
Auditory Training
Assistive Listening Technology
Pathologies of the Central Auditory Pathway
Traumatic Brain Injury
Cortical/Central Deafness
Cerebrovascular Accident
Multiple Sclerosis
Summary
Recommended Readings
References
Glossary
Index