Written by the leading experts of this field, this book results from the International Symposium on “Single Molecule Machines on a Surface: Gears, Train of Gears, Motors, and Cars” which took place in Toulouse, France on November 24th - 25th, 2021. The different chapters focus on describing the use of single molecule mechanics on a surface and analyze the different steps leading to the design of a single molecule nanocar. The authors present how a single molecule is rotating, how a single molecule gear can participate to a train of molecule gears to propagate motion and how this knowledge is used for the design of nanocars. The way energy is provided to a single molecule and how this energy drives it onto the surface is also analyzed. A large portion of this volume is written by the eight teams selected to participate in the Nanocar Race II event. This book is of great use to graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and researchers who are interested in single molecule mechanics and who want to know more about the fundamentals and applications of this new research field.