Inequality stirs passions across the globe today, figures prominently in political discourse, generates fervid debate and popular protest, and is the theme of widely read scholarly publications. This book contributes to the burgeoning global dialogues and literature on economic inequality in a new way, identifying and addressing what may be called bedrock types of inequality whose origins are rooted in the history and culture of each country. These kinds of inequality strongly influence income distributions by strata, can be resistant to change, and require solutions beyond fiscal tax and expenditure policies. And it places the findings firmly in the realm of the relevant studies on the topics covered. The countries analyzed include South Korea, Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Peru, Estonia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and Yemen.